What are .X Domains and .Crypto Domains? (NFT Domains Explained)

September 15, 2022 - 17 min read

.X Domains, .Crypto Domains, and Other Blockchain Domains are Exploding in Popularity 

The DNS (or the Domain Name System) is widely considered “the internet’s phonebook,” but it has a wide variety of limitations, including centralization, security risks, and privacy issues. With the hope of addressing many of these issues, blockchain domains have become explosively popular in recent times– and their popularity only continues to keep growing. 

ICANN (The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers), a U.S.-based non-profit, essentially controls the way domain names are distributed, giving it an incredible (if subtle) influence on how the internet works. 

While organized by ICANN, DNS data is distributed and is managed on two levels, the first-level, known as the root level, is managed by registries. The second level, in contrast, is managed by registrars. 

In the current system, domain name “owners” don’t actually own their domains; they actually must lease their domains from massive industry players like GoDaddy, Namecheap, and Google, in a system that is relatively insecure, has little privacy, and gives these firms a massive amount of control over the internet. 

In addition, traditional domains are vulnerable to DDOS (distributed denial of service) attacks, which can temporarily disable websites by sending them a massive amount of internet traffic (typically done by bot farms, or botnets, computers that are hijacked from unsuspecting individuals). 

While DDOS attacks on individual websites pose a threat to individual users or companies, registrars or ICANN are also vulnerable to DDOS attacks and other types of manipulation, which poses a significant potential threat to the health of the entire internet. 

Fortunately, there’s a solution, and a variety of companies, including industry leaders like Unstoppable Domains and Ethereum Name Service, are now allowing users to register their domain names on the blockchain, giving users an unprecedented amount of control over their own domains. 

Popular blockchain-based domains include .x, .crypto, .coin, .nft, .wallet, and .dao, among many others. Blockchain and crypto domain names are technically NFTs, so these domains are often referred to as NFT domains. 

In this article, we’ll discuss the pros and cons of blockchain DNS and NFT domains, including their pros and cons, the popularity of services like Unstoppable Domains and Ethereum Name Service, the differences between .x and .crypto domains, other blockchain domain providers, and the emerging popularity of Solana domains. For good measure, we’ll also walk you through how to purchase a .crypto domain on Unstoppable Domains. 

Are Blockchain Domains Like .Crypto and .X Really Unstoppable? 

In many ways, blockchain domains are actually, unstoppable. Blockchain domains like .x and .crypto have a wide scope of benefits, including:

  • One-Time Registration/Indefinite Ownership: Once a buyer purchases an NFT domain, they never have to purchase it again, without having to pay any renewal fees. They will own it forever unless they choose to transfer it to another person. 
  • Constant Availability: Unlike traditional registrars and web hosts, which occasionally experience disruptions, blockchain domains (so far) have been completely available with zero downtime. This is because peer-to-peer network hosting of websites has ensured the availability of websites 24/7.
  • Easy Crypto Payments: Blockchain domains allow domains to function as wallet addresses so people can easily send funds to an easy-to-remember domain instead of a convoluted public address. While different blockchain domain providers vary, users utilizing Unstoppable Domains can currently send and receive 276 different types of crypto. 
  • Data Integrity: Blockchain domains are almost impossible to corrupt, due to the fact that blockchains use strong cryptography and achieve consensus using distributed node operators instead of one centralized authority. This means that DNSSEC key renewal is 

For reference, the Domain Name System Security Extensions, or DNSSEC is a major feature of the Domain Name System (DNS) that verifies responses to domain name lookups. However, DNSSEC keys sometimes need to be removed, which can lead to security breaches and owner lockouts. 

  • Censorship Resistance: Blockchain/NFT domains, unlike traditional domains, can’t be taken offline or blocked using the traditional methods often utilized by heavy-handed corporations and governments.  
  • Increased Security: Blockchain technology adds an additional layer of security to a domain, making it nearly impossible to hijack or steal, particularly with the brute force hacking methods that are often used to hijack or steal traditional domains. 
  • Privacy and Confidentiality: NFT domains ensure significant confidentiality when compared to traditional domains. Only the public address of the domain owner is known. 
  • dApp Support: NFT domains have native support for dApps, which can make them easier to use and less glitchy.

However, there are some potential downsides of blockchain domains. These include:

  • Limited Use/Branding Issues: NFT domains are extremely new, so they may not be trusted or used outside the crypto and blockchain ecosystem. This means that it may not be useful for companies and individuals using blockchain domains to use these domains outside the crypto community. 
  • Web Hosting Challenges: Hosting sites on blockchain domains can be a challenge. Right now, there are a limited number of hosting services that can host sites on blockchain domains, and all of them must use the Interplanetary File System (IFPS). 
  • Limited Browser Support: Blockchain domains are not automatically supported on many browsers. Right now, major browsers like Firefox and Chrome require users to install a plugin for blockchain domain access. However, this may change soon as these domains potentially become more popular. Popular plugins for blockchain domain names include FriGate, Blockchain DNS, and PeerName. 
  • Criminal Use: While the fact that corporations and governments can’t censor NFT domains is usually seen as a good thing, they can also be used by cybercriminals, such as individuals selling drugs, weapons, and, perhaps most commonly, stolen user data. One major site, known as Joker’s Stash, reportedly uses a blockchain domain to sell stolen credit and debit card data. 

Looking at the Industry Leader, Unstoppable Domains

Right now, by far, the industry leader in the blockchain domain space is Unstoppable Domains. The blockchain domain provider was founded in 2018 and is currently led by CEO Matthew Gould and his co-founders Braden Pezeshki, Bogdan Guseiv, and Bradley Kam. 

The company started with only two domains, .crypto and .zil, and later expanded to eight more domains in June 2021. This launch was associated with a major Unstoppable Domains airdrop, which also provided $100 million worth of credits for users. The promotion provided users with $3 of purchase credits for every $1 they spent on domains. Another airdrop of $450,000 of NFT domain names was issued in July 2022 in partnership with blockchain protocol UTU. 

Unstoppable Domains initially supported only the Ethereum and Zilliqua blockchains, but, on November 21, 2021, they announced that they were extending functionality to the Polygon blockchain (the most popular Ethereum Layer-2 chain), and would even cover all gas fees for Polygon transactions, potentially saving customers hundreds of dollars. 

Ethereum and Polygon domains offered by the company include: 

  • .x
  • .crypto
  • .blockchain
  • .coin
  • .bitcoin
  • .nft
  • .dao. 
  • .888
  • .wallet

At the current moment .zil is the sole domain offered on the Zilliqua blockchain. For reference, Zilliqua is a high-throughput, sharding-based blockchain with smart contract, NFT, and dApp functionality. Its native currency is the synonymous Zilliqa (ZIL). 

Unstoppable Domains, MetaMask, and Other Crypto Wallets 

As with other types of NFTs, you will need a wallet to mint your domain. Unstoppable domains integrates with most major Ethereum and Zilliqua wallets, including popular wallets such as MetaMask, MyEtherWallet, and the Coinbase Wallet. This page from Unstoppable Domains shows you how to link your account with your wallet. 

Once you mint your NFT domain, you will still have to search for it in your wallet if you want to use it, which can be tricky if you don’t know how. This page shows users how to search for their Unstoppable Domain domain inside their MetaMask wallet. 

Comparing .X Domains vs. .Crypto Domains (And Other Options) 

Technically, there is no functional difference between .X domains and .Crypto domains. They are both NFT/blockchain domains and have all the benefits and potential drawbacks of other blockchain domain names. However, there are a few things to think about when deciding whether to buy a .x or .crypto domain. 

  • Application and Branding: While all blockchain domains are somewhat crypto-centric, .crypto is extremely crypto-specific, while .x is much more generalized. Therefore, if you want to use your domain for a website or service that is not exactly specific to crypto, or has a broader theme (such as crypto, blockchain, and NFTs), then .x could be a better choice. Of course, there are also .nft and .blockchain options if your website focuses on those specific topics. 
  • Cost: .Crypto domains are slightly less expensive to register than .x domains, starting at just $40. In contrast, .x domains start at $100.
  • Availability: Just like traditional domains, some of the best NFT domains are already taken, so you’ll have to choose something that’s still available. Unstoppable Domains allows existing owners who have already minted their NFT domain to resell it on the platform, so you can consider buying a domain this way, but these domains could be much more expensive. 

Unstoppable Domains vs. ENS (Ethereum Name Service) 

The Ethereum Name Service, or ENS, is perhaps the second-largest NFT domain provider in the industry. The ENS domain name service integrates the traditional DNS system with their blockchain-based DNS system, which can provide additional benefits to users. Just like Unstoppable Domains, and, in contrast to traditional DNS providers, users get the security, censorship-resistance, and other benefits of blockchain domains. 

However, unlike Unstoppable Domains, ENS permits owners of regular domains like .com to transfer it to their blockchain DNS service, provided they can prove ownership with their DNSSEC registration information. It’s not yet clear if this type of transfer provides all the benefits of blockchain domains, or just some of them. 

By far, the most popular domain offered by the Ethereum Name Service is .eth, though other domains, such as .xyz, .pid, .luxe, and .kred are also available. Some domains offered by ENS have sold for incredibly high amounts, with one domain selling for a record $3.5 million. 

In March and April 2022, owners of Bored Ape Yacht Club (BAYC) NFTs began scrambling to purchase three and four digit .eth domains that would correlate to the specific number of their BAYC NFT. For example, 555.eth sold for $158,000, likely to the corresponding BAYC NFT owner. ENS has reportedly had over 300,000 domain name registrations and $28 million of sales in the first 18 months alone. 

Hosting a Website on the Blockchain Using a Blockchain Domain 

While it may be convenient to use your blockchain domain as a wallet, the main benefit of a blockchain domain is the ability to host your own website. When using a blockchain domain to host your site, instead of having your site hosted on a single server, they will be distributed across a network of computers managed through the  InterPlanetary File System (IPFS).

The InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) is a distributed protocol and peer-to-peer network for storing and sharing data. IPFS permits users to host and receive content much like a peer-to-peer file-sharing service. IPFS consists of a decentralized system of user-operators, each of which store a part of the overall data, which increases the resilience of the overall system. 

Unlike HTTP, which downloads files from one server at a time IPFS’s peer-to-peer system retrieves pieces from multiple nodes simultaneously, meaning that it uses less bandwidth and can utilize less bandwidth, or achieve a higher network using the same bandwidth. According to IFPS, the system saves up 60% in bandwidth savings for video content alone. 

If you want to host a website on the blockchain, you will need an IPFS hash, which identities your site’s files on the blockchain network.

One your site is up, it is very difficult for government entities and corporations, including internet service providers, to take it down. Though it could theoretically be blocked by an ISP, the site would still remain fully active and could be accessed using another ISP or even a VPN. 

However, keep in mind that if you just want to use your domain as a wallet address, you don’t need to go through the hassle of setting up an entire website. 

Blockchain and Crypto Domains are Actually NFT Domains 

The term NFT means non-fungible tokens, and in crypto, NFTs are digital records of unique assets minted on the blockchain.

Domain names are unique in that you can’t have two similar domain names existing on the blockchain or in the conventional DNS system.

NFT domains are thus blockchains domains that have features associated with NFTs, such as the ease of being traded on an exchange platform. These domains can be bought, sold, stored in a wallet just like NFTs, and several parties can jointly own one or several names.

Yes, Unstoppable Domains can be considered NFTs. By definition, NFTs are records of unique digital assets minted on the blockchain and UD domains are just that – they are unique, and they are minted on their respective blockchain and claimed by the owner.

Additionally, just like NFTs, they can be bought, sold, and traded for profit, and multiple entities can share ownership.

A domain name can only be an NFT if minted on a blockchain that supports smart contracts such as Ethereum, Zilliqa or Binance Smart Chain.

NFTs are digital records of unique assets maintained on the blockchain, but not all domain names are minted tokens. A majority are conventional, and their registration records are maintained in centralized servers administered by ICANN.

NFT domain names are crypto domains minted on a blockchain like Ethereum or Binance Smart Chain (BSC).

These names are unique, meaning that two instances of the same name can never be hosted on the network.

NFT domain names are issued under the same principles used in the conventional DNS system, whereby each domain is associated with a single entity, and the records are maintained to avoid conflict in domain resolution.

Namehashing for ERC-721 NFTs 

It should be noted that when using blockchain domain names on the Ethereum blockchain, the domain is converted to an ERC-721 NFT using a process referred to as “namehashing.” According to Unstoppable Domains: “Namehashing is an algorithm that converts a domain name in a classical format (like www.example.crypto) to ERC-721 token id. All .crypto contracts accept a domain name as a method argument in the form of an ERC-721 token.” 

It’s unclear if Ethereum domains will be converted to other Ethereum NFT token standards, like the increasingly popular ERC-1155 standard, in the future, or if there is any major benefit to doing so. 

The Other Best Blockchain Domain Name Platforms

While Unstoppable Domains and Ethereum Name Service are by far the top blockchain domain companies on the market, there are quite a few others competing for a strong place in the industry. Some of the best-known options include: 

  • Stack: Stacks uses the Bitcoin blockchain to register domain names. It does this by merging DNS with a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), which means that third-party servers, databases, and ID systems are no longer needed. They only offer one domain extension, .btc, which they allow users to easily redirect to traditional domains. The end goal of the Stacks protocol is to allow users to create NFTs and dApps using the Bitcoin blockchain. 
  • NameCoin: NameCoin allows users to register domain names on the NameCoin blockchain, which was the first fork of Bitcoin. NameCoin only allows users to register one domain extension, .bit, which may be useful for sites hosting Bitcoin-related information, goods, or services. 
  • PeerName: PeerName allows users to register domain names on the NameCoin, EmerCoin, and XNR blockchains. Available domain extensions include.coin, .bit, ..lib, emc, .bazar, and .lib, and domains. PeerName is known for using cold storage to store its domain data, reducing the chances of hacking, theft, or manipulation. Domains start at $13.99-$14.99 for annual registration at $399 for lifetime registration. 
  • NEM DNS Service: NEM DNS Service is a somewhat lesser-known blockchain domain service. It uses the company’s own blockchain, NEM, and only allows users to register .nem domains. It requires the use of the protocol’s specialized wallet and browser extension. 
  • Handshake: Handshake is another blockchain domain company that uses its own blockchain for DNS registration. For maximum decentralization and security, each user acts as a node to approve any changes to the blockchain. Users are given an encrypted key that can be used to write ordered records. Unlike most blockchain domain services, handshake actually allows users to register over 1,500 top-level domains, like .com, .net., and .org. 
  • RIF: Rif is a cross-chain platform for domains, storage, and payments. It allows users to register decentralized blockchain domains with the .rsk extension. 

An Emerging Trend: Solana (.sol) Domains 

Solana is proving to be one of the fastest and most popular blockchains on the market today. Despite concerns about outages and centralization, Solana has a highly committed community, and Solana NFTs are already available (and quite popular) on major NFT marketplaces like OpenSea. With all the hype around the blockchain and its various benefits, it’s no surprise that Solana has launched its own domain naming service, Solana Naming Service

The Solana Naming Service allows customers to buy .sol domains using an auction system, with prices starting at just $20. Like all other blockchain domains, it also functions as a wallet address, allowing owners to quickly send and receive Solana and other cryptocurrencies using their domain. The Solana Naming Service can be found on the associated Bonfida website, where users can search for domain availability and initiate the auction process for available domains. 

Just like those buying Ethereum domain names need an Ethereum-capable wallet, those buying Solana domains need a Solana-capable wallet, like Phantom. Currently, users need to purchase $FIDA, the native token of the Bonfida platform to buy their domain, with average prices sitting around $25. $FIDA can be purchased on major exchanges like Binance, Coinbase, or FTX. Alternatively, they can purchase Solana ($SOL) and swap it for $FIDA on a DEX (decentralized exchange) like Raydium. To prevent mass purchases, purchase auctions involve a 3-day waiting period, and if no one else has made an offer on the domain, it will go to the original intended buyer. 

Example Tutorial: Buying and Claiming a .Crypto Domain From Unstoppable Domains 

Below, we will demonstrate the process for purchasing a blockchain domain from Unstoppable Domains. We will also show how to claim your domain with a wallet, in this case, a MetaMask wallet. We have borrowed this guide from Crypto Explained

1. Signing Up: The first step towards purchasing a .crypto domain is to visit Unstoppable Domains at and sign up.

2. Choosing Your Domain: Next, enter in the domain that you’d like to purchase. 

search for .crypto domain
add to cart

3. Add to the Basket: Now, add your domain of choice to your basket by clicking “Add to Cart,” then, click on the basket. You will now be brought to your cart. 

4. Checkout: Now that you’ve gotten to your cart, click “Checkout” if you’re okay with your purchase. 


5. Pay: You can pay with several options, including Apple Pay, Google Pay, and Pay, which gives you 10% off. 

pay with

How to Claim Your .Crypto Blockchain Domain

Below, we show how to claim your .crypto blockchain domain from Unstoppable Domains by using a MetaMask Wallet. 

1.  Select Your Domain: The first step is to click “My Domains” on the top left. 

go to my domains

2. Claim The Domain: In this example, we will show you how to claim your domain with ETH. To do this, you will need to have enough ETH in your MetaMask wallet. After ensuring that you do, click “Claim With ETH” on the bottom of the page. 

claim with ETH

 3. Email Verification: Next, click “Send Code By Email”.

claim domains

 4. Get Your Code From Your Email: Login to your email and copy the code from the email you’ve been sent. Then, paste it into the box below the “Claim Process Started” heading. 

paste the code

 5. Choose Your Crypto Wallet: If you don’t want to use WalletConnect, the Mew Wallet, or the Coinbase Wallet, choose the Web3 wallet (as previously stated, we will be using MetaMask in this tutorial. 

web3 wallet

6. Choose MetaMask as your wallet. 

connect to account

7. Connect to MetaMask: Connect Unstoppable Domains to MetaMask by clicking “Next” and then click “Connect.” 

i understand

8. Sign The Transaction in MetaMask. Click confirm to finish. 


9.  Start The .Crypto Claiming Process: Once the transaction process is initiated, click “View Domains.”

.crypto claiming process started

 10. Pending Claim/Finish: Now, when you look at your domain, it should say “Pending Claim.” When the transfer is complete, the “Pending Claim” will change to a purple button saying “Manage.”

pending claim

In Conclusion: Blockchains .X and .Crypto May Represent The Future of The Internet, But Widespread Adoption is Still Uncertain

Blockchain/NFT domains like .x and .crypto provide a wide array of benefits to users, including increased security, censorship resistance, and the opportunity for true ownership, which prevents users from needing to pay expensive renewal fees. 

Right now, however, these domains are still in their infancy, and no more than 15-20 domain name extensions are available, which could limit the popularity of blockchain domains. In addition, users still only have a limited ability to convert traditional domain name extensions to true blockchain domains. In addition, most major web browsers do not provide the native capability for users to access NFT domains, which could be a major barrier to adoption. 

However, if the popularity of these domains continues to grow, the amount of available extensions will likely grow as well, popular web browsers will begin to offer native access to blockchain domains, and users will likely be able to register traditional domain extensions, like .com, .org, or .io on the blockchain. If these things happen, blockchain domains could transform the internet as we know it. 


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  4. (Jun. 2021) Unstoppable Domains Announces $100 Million+ Airdrop and 8 New Top-level Domain Names. PR Newswire. 
  5. (Jul. 2022) UTU and Unstoppable Domains Partner to ensure Web 3 Identity and Trust go hand-in-hand. UTU. 
  6. (2021, Nov.) We’re LIVE on Polygon! You Can Now Mint Your Domains for Free!. Unstoppable Domains. 
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  13. Stacks: Unleash Bitcoin’s Full Potential. Stacks. 
  14. NameCoin: Against Censorship. NameCoin
  15. Decentralized Blockchain-Based Domains. PeerName. 
  16. Decentralized, censorship free and updatable DNS. NEM DNS. 
  17. Decentralized naming and certificate authority. Handshake. 
  18. RIF Name Service: Get your domain, forget your address. Rif: RSK Infrastructure Network. 
  19. (Jul. 2021) Bonfida’s Solana Naming Service Launches .SOL Domains. SCB: Solana Community Blog. 
  20. Solana Name Service I Bonfida: A Humanized ID for the Metaverse. Bonfida. 
  21. Bonfida (FIDA). CoinMarketCap. 
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  23. How to Buy and Claim .Crypto Domain. Crypto Explained. 

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